Let’s try to say be honest if you would survive without your smartphone? We do not talk about the essential use of your phone, perhaps for business communication, We talk about the need to check your facebook everytime you get a chance. We are talking about the need to post photos of every meal or check up on that on Facebook. With this in mind Jumia Travel, an online travel agency highlights several helpful ways to break a smartphone addiction: Monitor Your Smartphone Use Paying attention to the number of times per hour you check your phone can help to increase your awareness about any addiction you might have to your smartphone. If you’re aware of the problem, then it will be easier to address it and better help you begin to identify goals and possible solutions. To help you monitor your smartphone use, you can download an app that helps with this kind of tracking. An example of such an app would be ‘Checky’ and there many others like this you can use. Consciously Limit Your Smartphone Use to Certain Times of the Day There really is no other way to deal with a smartphone addiction than to make a conscious effort to address the problem. You should consciously limit your smartphone use to specific times of the day to give yourself time to do other things. This is very important. You can later reward yourself for meeting the goals you have set to limit your smartphone usage with suitable incentives. Remember, scientifically, it takes thirty days to break/make a habit, so you only have to keep it going for a while before it becomes easier for you, practically a thing of habit. Turn Off or Customize Your Notifications Notifications are one of the major causes of smartphone addictions, especially for ‘addictive’ apps like Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter and the like. Just make things easier for yourself and temper the temptation to check your phone all the time, by turning off the notifications for those ‘addictive’ apps because they only make you more prone to whipping out your phone and drowning in the vicious cycle of texts, mentions, comments, replies etc. that waste so much of the time you can use to do things that are more beneficial. Try To Understand What Triggers Your Excessive Smartphone Use Everything we do is for a reason, and if your smartphone use is excessive then there is a reason for it. Trying to uncover what this reason is and trying to understand it will make it easier for you to overcome your smartphone addiction. You might be addicted to your phone because you often get bored. Boredom has been known to trigger individuals to engage in addictive behaviours. To address the issue, you can then work on developing hobbies or engaging yourself in activities that will not only solve your problem of boredom but will be more beneficial to you.
Nagios alternative number one. Pandora FMS. All in one, built from scratch, more flexible than ever All right, let’s address one of the elephants in the room: in monitoring most products or projects do most of the same things as the one next to it. The issue gets serious when a company decides to build its monitoring solution from a solution already developed and working. Don’t get me wrong, this is not a bad behavior, however, if you want to stand out from competitors in an already crowded industry such as the monitoring sector, the best way to do it is starting from scratch and try to change the current monitoring standards. This is where Pandora breaks the mold. We actually went through the trouble of building something from scratch that really works. More so, it works like it’s supposed to. We nailed it and actually created something “all-in-one” that works if you read the documentation where we have spent thousands of hours explaining how to go to the extra mille with Pandora FMS. If you’ve got the IT know how and are willing to take the time to comb Pandora to your taste, you’re getting the best price-quality ratio, considering there’s no price on these solutions. The legend even states that some Open Source users have tweaked this out to be just as powerful as their enterprise edition, but legends are legends, right? OP5, the second Nagios alternative- A flexible, Nagios fork, fresh but limited OP5 is a bit more complicated to use just like most others, their open source version is a gateway to their Enterprise version, and obviously leads to revenue for them. The good thing, although it’s a Nagios-based code, is that it’s oriented to be flexible, just like the aforementioned Pandora FMS. This means, they also pay great attention to their community, and essentially thrive off it. They’re heavily oriented to not only add value to technicians, but also to the customer or sales manager. This makes OP5 much more versatile. They have managed to adapt quite well to cloud service monitoring and, in general, do pretty well on the internet’s fashion runway. They’re hip, fresh, up-to-date and all those good things one pays attention to while developing. “You’ll absolutely need to have that Hadoop (or Big Data) integration” the boss says, well OP5’s done that for you. Hooray! A simplification in your line of work. But what’s the big downside of this Nagios alternative? Their Open Source version is quite limited and leaves you needing more when it comes to larger or more complex monitoring environments. It almost forces users to end up paying the license to get the full-featured edition. Third Nagios alternative: Zenoss core. User interface and SAAS oriented monitoring Zenoss is a really good option for network and server monitoring. Let’s be honest about it: it is a better tool than Nagios for monitoring. Really Zenoss made it, they created a very well-rounded monitoring solution, almost air tight with regards to stability and features. Thing is Zenoss Core is more oriented to SaaS (with their ZaaS [Zenoss as a Service] program). That’s their competitive advantage. Their downfall you ask? Less on premise features, less customization, and everything you get from a company that’s very rapidly trying to hop on to the “cloud monitoring” wagon of the SaaS train. Although we must admit that their interface and user friendliness is top tier, their free edition is very limited and the upgrade to enterprise is too expensive. Nagios alternatives number four. Zabbix. Complex to handle but really trendy nowadays Zabbix is hard, but not because it’s significantly unique when compared to others, but because their documentation is just so cryptic you probably will need an IT translator just to understand the setup. This is their main drawback: the cryptic nature of the software that makes a difficulty comparison made with the rest of the aforementioned services. Yeah, the learning curve for Zabbix is steep, very steep Thing is, if you’re developing software you should already understand that user friendliness is about 90% of what you need, the rest is just stuff that your real users won’t understand, or even bother to do so. Conclusion. Make it easy, it’ll make selling easier too. If you as a user can overcome all of these uniquely fantastic obstacles, then you’re in, and probably not getting out. PRTG, another Nagios Alternative. Easy and straight to the point in not complex environments. PRTG is a software that is up to date in the latest trends like web-based GUIs, mobile adaptations, and some other features that users crave. They have the best intentions with what they’re doing, and the services they provide are very well thought out, but nowadays you can’t just monitor from the outside looking in. Everything is integrated, and if it looks easy, it’ll probably be shallow. To sum up, PRTG is a valid product if what you need it for isn’t overly complex. Heed to this especially if you’re trying out the free version, it’s really a toy model for the real one. They’re good, easy to use, and have a very strong adaptive power, yet they almost feel like they’re the cuttlefish of the monitoring industry, but all this means is that they hop on to a lot of bandwagons with little real efficiency. Paessler created something unique, but times change, technology evolves and PRTG should find it in themselves to make something new. Their technology is not the most up to date, and they should rethink their architecture. Still they manage to offer a whole lot of features, despite you getting their freeware version, which is limited to 100 nodes, and though this may seem limited, it’s surely more than enough for many installations. Anyway, it’s solid, although. as a programmer, adapting the tool to your installation can be a little bit tricky. Nagioscan be more powerful than PRTG. Except for the lack of database monitoring which is a big problem on their behalf, it’s a great product, and relatively as good as or better than Nagios. Nagios Alternative number six. OpenNMS: Strictly open source, and proud of it OpenNMS is like the holy grail of Open Source monitoring software. They’re basically the only company mentioned that is STRICTLY open source, and they defend this principle like only real Open Source fans would. They have an enormously huge and active community and obviously pride themselves of this. They say they’re the only monitoring solution that offers Enterprise features while remaining Open Source. Yep, that’s right, according to what we’ve read and tested, you can basically scale ONMS onto unlimited devices from a single instance. So why isn’t this the industry standard you ask? Although we’re praising them here, and although their strongpoint is network monitoring, ONMS is lacking strength when it comes to application or server monitoring. Apart from this, their reporting tools for non-technicians (for your boss) are inexistent. Putting it into simple terms, it’s limited, but for monitoring networks exclusively, it’s a great alternative to Nagios, especially if your budget is close to none. So, in conclusion, we have a very wide array of Nagios alternatives that can quite easily replace Nagios. As a final conclusion, stop looking for the monitoring solution you’re told you have to use and start building some criteria. If your boss insists on using Nagios, prove him or her wrong with deep knowledge on the matter, let that person know that really you’re the one who’s going to be giving the best advice because you’re the one using the solution everyday. No need to get caught up in large marketing schemes that misguide buyers into believing an inexistent hype; support smaller software producers, you may be surprised by the effort and care put into generating quality solutions that most times are overlooked. Source: https://blog.pandorafms.org/nagios-alternatives-the-best-6-ones/
Your Internet Service Provider keeps track of your actions on the internet. Here’s how you can protect your PC online. After the recent activities, ISPs are keeping watch on their user’s internet activities. They maintain the logs of your browsing data without you knowing. There are many methods to protect your PC online but which will work and which will not is very important. First, the important thing is, you have to decide what data you have to protect and from whom you have to protect. You might be feeling secure by Using the browser in the incognito Mode. But It won’t stop ISP from tracking your search data. Incognito mode just opens a fresh new tab which will not access your history, cookies, cache in the browser but that’s not sufficient. # Do Not Track Latest browsers come with a ‘Do Not Track‘ signal. Browsers can send this signal to websites along with every request. While DNT is often hidden in the advanced options of your browser, enabling it lets a web server to know that, you will not accept cookies which can track you. Here’s how to enable it: Chrome: Settings > Advanced Settings > Check the last box under the Privacy heading, “Send a ‘Do Not Track‘ request with your browsing traffic”. Firefox: Options > Privacy > Click “manage your Do Not Track settings” > Click “Always apply Do Not Track“. # Use the good VPN A Virtual Private Network(VPN) is an encrypted connection that allows you to connect to a network over the internet just like you are a part of that local area network (LAN). A VPN is really useful for companies, as workers can access shared drives, printers, and other resources from their home. It’s also a great privacy tool. These are some good VPN clients: Psiphon HideMyAss SurfEasy HideMe CyberGhost # Use Tor Browser The Tor browser has widely been used for secure your browsing. Tor is The short form for The Onion Router basically, it hides your IP by relaying your web requests through a network of proxy servers. Tor is a great method for browsing anonymously unless you are trying to misuse it. # Prefer HTTPS connection Always check on the leftmost side of the address bar for HTTPS is written there or not. HTTPS provide SSL or TSL encryption while browsing online. TLS traffic is encrypted so that only the recipient and server can see the data that’s being transmitted. That’s why your bank’s website and Amazon orders are always secure. # Use a good Antivirus To protect your PC online first you have to keep your computer clean. many pop-ups or malicious Softwares such as a virus, adware, spyware give your information to some websites or attackers. This makes your PC vulnerable online. so use a good antivirus and keep it up-to-date.
Because of the many users requests of how to manage a SSH_VPN below we are sharing the official Ubuntu manual about. This page details how to set up an SSH VPN. NB: You must be using OpenSSH version 4.3 or later to do this– this means that this will not work with Ubuntu 6.06 or earlier’s default packages — it will only work with Ubuntu 6.10 or later, or with a locally compiled SSH version 4.3 or later. This page discusses using SSH to set up SSH-based point to point connections, which can then be used to create routes that create virtual private networks. Note that using SSH in this fashion is not the “best” way to create a permanent, stable VPN. Notably, SSH uses TCP, and TCP over TCP can provide abysmal performance under pathological conditions. See also OpenVPN, etc. You also need to have installed uml-utilities on the “calling” machine (the one that will ask for the tunnel). You can check by trying: sudo ifup tun0 Introduction OpenSSH version 4.3 introduced a new feature: the ability to create on-the-fly “Virtual Private Networks” via the tunnel driver, or “tun” driver. This feature allows you to create a network interface that bridges two physically disparate network segments. A quick diagram: +—————+ OpenSSH 4.3 +—————+ | Machine A | tun0 — Tunnel Interface — tun0 | Machine B | | Has a tunnel | <——————————->| Has a tunnel | | and ethernet | 10.0.0.100 10.0.0.200 | and ethernet | +——-+——-+ point to point connection +——-+——-+ eth0 | creates a bridge | eth0 10.0.0.100 | that plugs machine B | 192.168.0.100 port 22 | into network A | forwarded | | here | | +——-+——-+ +-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-+ +——-+——-+ | Network A | | | | Network B | | 10.0.0.1/24 | 18.104.22.168 | The Internet | | 192.168.0.1/24| | Has internet |<——–>| |<—–>| Has internet | | NAT gateway | Routable | | | NAT gateway | +—————+ Address +-~-~-~-~-~-~-~-+ +—————+ What does this diagram represent? In this case, we have two machines, machine A and machine B. Machine A is connected to network A via ethernet, and machine B is connected to network B via ethernet. Machine A’s IP address on Network A is 10.0.0.100, and Machine B’s IP address on Network B is 192.168.0.100. Each network has an internet NAT gateway to allow for internet connectivity. In this example, we are connecting machine B to network A via an ssh tunnel interface. Machine A already has an IP addresses on network A: its ethernet interface address (10.0.0.100). Machine B must also be allocated one IP address on network A: its tunnel interface address (10.0.0.200). Also, Machine B must have some access to the ssh server on Machine A; the most direct way for this to happen is that Machine A must have either a globally routable address itself; or (as is diagramed), port 22 (or whatever port ssh is running on) must be forwarded to Machine A by the NAT system. There are other ways to allow Machine B access to Machine A’s ssh server, but this is left as an exercise for the reader. Once the tunnel is set up, Machine B will be able to directly access Network A. In other words, Machine B would be “plugged in” to Network A via its tunnel with Machine A. Of couse, the devil’s in the details: how do you set all this up? IP forwarding Of course the first and most obvious thing is that you’d better have IP forwarding enabled. on Machine A (and it wouldn’t hurt on B), execute: sudo ifup tun0 The SSH command The actual SSH command that gets the ball rolling is quite simple: on Machine B, execute: sudo ifup tun0 Tip : Additional ssh options. sudo ifup tun0 -N Do not execute a remote command. This is useful for just forwarding ports (or in this case tunnels). -T Disable pseudo-tty allocation. -C Requests compression of all data (including stdin, stdout, stderr, and data for forwarded X11 and TCP connections). Compress can speed up or potentially slow down your speed, so try with and without. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. This command creates a tunnel interface named tun0 on both the client and server systems. In keeping with our diagram above, the server is Machine A (with a globally routable IP address of 22.214.171.124), and the client is Machine B. Note that you will need to have root access on both systems in order for ssh to be able to create these interfaces (see the security section below for security considerations and options to increase security). Additionally, you will need the following settings in your sshd_config on Machine A (the server): PermitRootLogin yes PermitTunnel yes Security considerations To increase security, use ssh keys – see AdvancedOpenSSH for information on keys – and change Permit Root Login yes to : sudo ifup tun0 Do not let that command fool you, without-password means root can not log in with a password (see man sshd). Also, on the server, if you use a key, you do NOT need to set a root password and your can restrict what commands can be run with the key (to ssh tunnels only). See the “Single-purpose keys” section of this link . On the client side, again if you do not wish to give your user complete root access , configure sudo. See RootSudo or sudoers man page. If no errors occur, then you should be able to see a tun0 interface on both systems as existing, but unconfigured: Machine A: $ ip addr show tun0 5: tun0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1510 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN qlen 500 link/none ($ represents the shell prompt and not a character to type) Machine B: $ ip addr show tun0 5: tun0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1510 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN qlen 500 link/none Configuring the interfaces At this point, we have got interfaces, but they are unconfigured. All we need to do to configure them is give them each an IP address (do this as root): Machine A: ip link set tun0 up ip addr add 10.0.0.100/32 peer 10.0.0.200 dev tun0 Machine B: ip link set tun0 up ip addr add 10.0.0.200/32 peer 10.0.0.100 dev tun0 Once each interface is configured, we have essentially got the VPN set up; it is just minor details from here. In fact, we can now ping from Machine B to Machine A: Machine B: % ping 10.0.0.100 PING 10.0.0.100 (10.0.0.100) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 10.0.0.100: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=74.8 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.100: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=73.6 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.100: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=74.3 ms — 10.0.0.100 ping statistics — 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2001ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 73.649/74.278/74.880/0.549 ms And of course we can also ping from Machine A back to Machine B: Machine A: % ping 10.0.0.200 PING 10.0.0.200 (10.0.0.200) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 10.0.0.200: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=75.2 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.200: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=74.0 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.200: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=74.0 ms — 10.0.0.200 ping statistics — 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 74.029/74.424/75.208/0.554 ms Plugging into the network At this point, we’ve created the actual link that allows Machine B to be plugged into Network A, but we haven’t set up any routing information to actually get packets back and forth between Machine B and Network A. The first thing we need to do is to tell Machine B about Network A: Machine B: sudo ifup tun0 This allows us to send packets from Machine B to any IP address on Network A, via Machine A. However, to ensure that packets have a route back to Machine B, we need to set some things up on Machine A. Machine A: sudo ifup tun0 This ensures that other machines plugged into Network A will know to send packets destined for 10.0.0.200 to Machine A (so that it can forward them back to Machine B). At this point, we do have two way communication betweek Network A and Machine B. Therefore, we can ping another machine on Network A from Machine B: Machine B: % ping 10.0.0.123 PING 10.0.0.123 (10.0.0.123) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 10.0.0.123: icmp_seq=1 ttl=127 time=74.3 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.123: icmp_seq=2 ttl=127 time=74.3 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.123: icmp_seq=3 ttl=127 time=74.5 ms — 10.0.0.123 ping statistics — 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2001ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 74.307/74.416/74.577/0.335 ms Expanding the scope of the VPN At this point, we have successfully plugged Machine B into Network A, and Machine B can access Network A’s resources and vice versa. However, what if we want to expand the scope of this VPN– what if we want to pretend that Machine B’s only network connection is through network A? If we did this, then all packets coming from or going to Machine B would route through Network A; this would complete Machine B’s integration into the private network. So, how do we do this? Simple: we just switch Machine B’s default gateway. However, first, we must create a host-based route to Machine A’s globally routable IP address; all packets except for the packets that actually create the link must go through the tunnel, but of course the packets that create the tunnel cannot go through the tunnel. Machine B: sudo ifup tun0 In this case, 192.168.0.1 is Machine B’s current default gateway; it is the gateway on Network B that provides internet connectivity. Before we switch Machine B’s default gateway away from Network B, we must set up this explicit route so that tunnel packets will continue to flow. After that route is in place, we can switch Machine B’s default gateway: Machine B: sudo ifup tun0 In this case, again, 192.168.0.1 is Network B’s default gateway, and 10.0.0.1 is Network A’s default gateway. Since Machine B is now connected to Network A, we are telling it to use Network A’s default gateway instead of its usual default gateway on Network B. At this point, the conversion is complete, and Machine B is now completely on Network A and has all the resources available to Network A, through the SSH tunnel. We can verify this by looking at the output of a tracepath: Machine B: % tracepath example.com 1: 10.0.0.200 (10.0.0.200) 0.291ms pmtu 1500 1: 10.0.0.100 (10.0.0.100) 168.589ms 2: 10.0.0.1 (10.0.0.1) asymm 3 87.542ms 3: 126.96.36.199 (188.8.131.52) 157.360ms Automating it all with ifup/down At this point, we have successfully created a virtual private network using SSH 4.3’s tunnels. Can we automate this process with ifup/down? The answer is: yes! Machine A: iface tun0 inet static pre-up sleep 5 address 10.0.0.100 pointopoint 10.0.0.200 netmask 255.255.255.0 up arp -sD 10.0.0.200 eth0 pub Machine B: iface tun0 inet static pre-up ssh -f -w 0:0 184.108.40.206 ‘ifdown tun0; ifup tun0′ pre-up sleep 5 address 10.0.0.200 pointopoint 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.255 up ip route add 10.0.0.0/24 via 10.0.0.200 up ip route add 220.127.116.11/32 via 192.168.0.1 up ip route replace default via 10.0.0.1 down ip route replace default via 192.168.0.1 down ip route del 10.0.0.0/24 via 10.0.0.200 down ip route del 18.104.22.168/32 via 192.168.0.1 These example /etc/network/interface snippets show how you would, on Machine B, simply have to execute: Machine B: sudo ifup tun0 And the system would automatically make the ssh connection, set up the tunnel, and turn on the VPN. Additionally, the ifdown command can be used to put the routes back to normal, or turn off the VPN. Note that the sleep commands in the snippet are there to allow ssh time to set the tunnel interface up, as it will not be instantaneous. Where do I go from here? There are many other possible ways to use SSH 4.3’s tunnels besides creating a VPN to connect machine B to network A. For example, you could connect machine B to network A, and then route back on machine A to network B, creating a sort-of reverse VPN. Or you could connect machine B to network A, and then redirect traffic from network A to machine B to another system on network B. The possibilities are only limited by the amount of root access you have. Source: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SSH_VPN
Commonly known as function keys on a computer keyboard, F1 through F12 may have a variety of different uses or no use at all. The operating system installed on the computer and the software program that is currently open dictates how each of these keys operate. A program is capable of not only using each of the function keys, but also combining the function keys with the Alt or Ctrl key. For example, Microsoft Windows users can press Alt + F4 to close the currently active program. F1 Almost always used as the help key, almost every program opens a help screen when this key is pressed. Enter CMOS Setup. Windows Key + F1 would open the Microsoft Windows help and support center. Open the Task Pane. F2 In Windows renames a highlighted icon, file, or folder in all versions of Windows. Alt + Ctrl + F2 opens document window in Microsoft Word. Ctrl + F2 displays the print preview window in Microsoft Word. Quickly rename a selected file or folder. Enter CMOS Setup. F3 Often opens a search feature for many programs including Microsoft Windows when at the Windows Desktop. In MS-DOS or Windows command line F3 will repeat the last command. Shift + F3 will change the text in Microsoft Word from upper to lower case or a capital letter at the beginning of every word. Windows Key + F3 opens the Advanced find window in Microsoft Outlook. Open Mission Control on an Apple computer running Mac OS X. F4 Open find window in Windows 95 to XP. Open the address bar in Windows Explorer and Internet Explorer. Repeat the last action performed (Word 2000+). Alt + F4 closes the program window currently active in Microsoft Windows. Ctrl + F4 closes the open window within the current active window in Microsoft Windows. F5 In all modern Internet browsers, pressing F5 will refresh or reload the page or document window. Refresh the list of contents in a folder. Open the find, replace, and go to window in Microsoft Word. Starts a slideshow in PowerPoint. F6 Move the cursor to the address bar in Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and most other Internet browsers. Ctrl + Shift + F6 opens to another open Microsoft Word document. Reduce laptop speaker volume (on some laptops). F7 Commonly used to spell check and grammar check a document in Microsoft programs such as Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc. Shift + F7 runs a Thesaurus check on the word highlighted. Turns on Caret browsing in Mozilla Firefox. Increase laptop speaker volume (on some laptops). F8 Function key used to enter the Windows startup menu, commonly used to access Windows Safe Mode. Used by some computers to access the Windows recovery system, but may require a Windows installation CD. Displays a thumbnail image for all workspaces in Mac OS. F9 Refresh document in Microsoft Word. Send and receive e-mail in Microsoft Outlook. Opens the Measurements toolbar in Quark 5.0. Reduce laptop screen brightness (on some laptops). With Mac OS 10.3 or later, displays a thumbnail for each window in a single workspace. Using the Fn key and F9 at the same time opens Mission Control on an Apple computer running Mac OS X. F10 In Microsoft Windows activates the menu bar of an open application. Shift + F10 is the same as right-clicking on a highlighted icon, file, or Internet link. Access the hidden recovery partition on Compaq, HP, and Sony computers. Enter CMOS Setup on some computers. Increase laptop screen brightness (on some laptops) With Mac OS 10.3 or later, shows all open Windows for the active program. F11 Enter and exit fullscreen mode in all modern Internet browsers. Ctrl + F11 as computer is starting to access the hidden recovery partition on many Dell computers. Access the hidden recovery partition on eMachines, Gateway, and Lenovo computers. With Mac OS 10.4 or later, hides all open windows and shows the Desktop. F12 Open the Save as window in Microsoft Word. Ctrl + F12 opens a document In Word. Shift + F12 saves the Microsoft Word document (like Ctrl + S). Ctrl + Shift + F12 prints a document in Microsoft Word. Preview a page in Microsoft Expression Web. Open Firebug or browser debug tool. With an Apple running Mac OS 10.4 or later, F12 shows or hides the Dashboard. Access the list of bootable devices on a computer at startup, allowing you to select a different device to boot from (hard drive, CD or DVD drive, floppy drive, USB drive, and network). F13 – F15 On newer Apple keyboards the F13, F14, and F15 may be shown in place of the Print Screen key, Scroll lock key, and Pause key. F16 – F19 On newer Apple keyboards the F16, F17, F18, and F19 keys are above the number pad. F13 – F24 Early IBM computers also had keyboards with F13 through F24 keys. However, because these keyboards are no longer used, they are not listed on this page. Source: computerhope.com
Below is a list of some of the most commonly used basic shortcut keys that work with almost all IBM compatible computers and software programs. It is highly recommended that all users keep a good reference of these shortcut keys or try to memorize them. Doing so will dramatically increase your productivity. Tip: Besides the special character shortcuts listed here, some special characters are also located on the number keys (below the F1 – F12 keys). You can enter these special characters by pressing the Shift key and the number key that has the special character listed on it. Shortcut Keys Description Alt + F File menu options in current program. Alt + E Edit options in current program Alt + Tab Switch between open programs F1 Universal Help in almost every Windows program. F2 Rename a selected file F5 Refresh the current program window Ctrl + N Create a new, blank document in some software programs Ctrl + O Open a file in current software program Ctrl + A Select all text. Ctrl + B Change selected text to be Bold Ctrl + I Change selected text to be in Italics Ctrl + U Change selected text to be Underlined Ctrl + F Open find window for current document or window. Ctrl + S Save current document file. Ctrl + X Cut selected item. Shift + Del Cut selected item. Ctrl + C Copy selected item. Ctrl + Ins Copy selected item Ctrl + V Paste Shift + Ins Paste Ctrl + K Insert hyperlink for selected text Ctrl + P Print the current page or document. Home Goes to beginning of current line. Ctrl + Home Goes to beginning of document. End Goes to end of current line. Ctrl + End Goes to end of document. Shift + Home Highlights from current position to beginning of line. Shift + End Highlights from current position to end of line. Ctrl + Left arrow Moves one word to the left at a time. Ctrl + Right arrow Moves one word to the right at a time. Ctrl + Esc Opens the START menu Ctrl + Shift + Esc Opens Windows Task Manager Alt + F4 Close the currently active program Alt + Enter Open the Properties for the selected item (file, folder, shortcut, etc.)
Microsoft Windows 10 users Press the Windows key, type Change advanced startup options, and then press Enter. Under the Recovery tab, select the Restart now option under Advanced startup. After a moment, you’ll see a menu with three options, select Troubleshoot. Select Advanced options, Startup Settings, and then the Restart button. You should see a screen just like the one pictured to the right. Select your appropriate Safe Mode option by pressing the corresponding number on your keyboard. Microsoft Windows 8 users Press the Windows key, type Change advanced startup options, and then press Enter. Under the Recovery tab, select the Restart now option under Advanced startup. After a moment, you’ll see a menu with three options, select Troubleshoot. Select Advanced options, Startup Settings, and then the Restart button. You should see a screen just like the one pictured to the right. Select your appropriate Safe Mode option by pressing the corresponding number on your keyboard. Microsoft Windows 7 and Windows Vista users Tip: If you are running Safe Mode because you cannot get into Windows, you may want to first try loading the last known good configuration. To get into the Windows Vista and Windows 7 Safe Mode, as the computer is booting, press and hold your F8 Key, which should bring up the Choose Advanced Options screen as shown below. Use your arrow keys to move highlight Safe Mode and press your Enter key. Note: On some computers, if you press and hold a key as the computer is booting, you will get a stuck key message. If this occurs, continuously tap F8 upon startup rather than holding it. Windows XP and Windows 2000 users Tip: If you are running Safe Mode because you cannot get into Windows, you may want to first try loading the last known good configuration. To get into the Windows 2000 and XP Safe mode, as the computer is booting, press and hold your F8 Key, which should bring up the Windows Advanced Options Menu screen as shown below. Use your arrow keys to move to highlight the Safe Mode option and press your Enter key. Note: On some computers, if you press and hold a key as the computer is booting, you will get a stuck key message. If this occurs, continuously tap F8 upon startup, rather than holding it. Windows 98 and Windows ME users To get into Windows 98 and ME Safe Mode, press and hold either the F8 or Ctrl key as the computer is booting up. If done properly, you should see the “Windows 98 Startup Menu” or “Windows ME Startup Menu” screen, similar to the example below. In this menu, choose option 3 by pressing the 3 key and then pressing Enter. Windows 95 users To get into Windows 95 Safe Mode, as the computer is booting, when you either hear a beep or when you see the message “Starting Windows 95.” Press your F8 key on the top of your keyboard. If done properly, you should see the “Windows 95 Startup Menu” screen, similar to the example below. In this menu, choose option 3 by pressing the 3 key, and then pressing Enter. How to get out of Safe Mode From Windows Safe Mode, click Start, Shutdown, and restart the computer to boot back into Normal Mode. Which Safe Mode option should I choose? Users who are running later versions of Windows will get different options for different versions of Safe Mode. For example, you may have options for “Safe Mode”, “Safe Mode with Networking”, and “Safe Mode with Command Prompt.” Below is a brief description of each of these different modes. Safe Mode The basic Safe Mode option is usually what most users will want to choose when troubleshooting their computer. This is the most basic Safe Mode option and has no additional support. Safe Mode with Networking Users who need access to the Internet or the network they’re connected to while in Safe Mode should select this option. This mode is helpful for when you need to be in Safe Mode to troubleshoot, but also need access to the Internet so you can get updates, drivers, or other files to help troubleshoot your issue. Safe Mode with Command Prompt This Safe Mode allows you to have access to the command line (MS-DOS prompt). Source: computerhope.com
If you can get the light to turn off and on, press CTRL + ALT + DEL and End Task the frozen program. Otherwise, proceed through each of the follow sections in order. Software related issue A computer locking up or freezing is often is caused by software related issues. If you are encountering lockups when the computer is opening a particular program, make sure you have all the latest updates for all running programs. You can find the latest updates for your software through the software developer or publisher. Too many programs open Each program or window you open on your computer takes some of the computers resources to keep it running. If you have too many programs open at one time, your computer may be low on resources, and as a result, is freezing. Try only running one program at a time to make sure your freezing is not being caused by multiple programs running at the same time. Driver related issue A computer lock up can also be caused by outdated or corrupted drivers. For example, if there is an issue that exists with your video adapter drivers, your computer could lock up while playing a game or watching a movie. First, make sure no errors exist in the Windows Device Manager by opening the Device Manager and verifying that no “Other Devices” are listed. You’ll also want to check the device list to see if any of them have a yellow exclamation mark or red X next to them. If they do, you’ll want to visit our page on identifying problems in Windows Device Manager. Next, make sure you have the latest drivers for all major devices in your computer (video, sound, modem, and network). A listing of driver-related pages, as well as driver-related help, can be found on our drivers page. Operating system related issue Make sure your operating system has all of the latest updates installed on it. Heat related issue If the computer processor is getting too hot, it can cause the computer to freeze. If you have heard any abnormal noises coming from your computer recently, such as a high squealing, it could be an indication of a failing fan. You can first start by verifying the fan on the power supply is working by examining the back of the computer and seeing if the fan is moving and moving smoothly. For the other fans in the computer, you have a few options. You can either open the computer and physically inspect them or, if the computer monitors the RPM of the fans, enter CMOS setup and make sure the BIOS does not report any errors. Hardware issue A hardware malfunction or misconfiguration can cause a computer to lock up. If you have recently added any new hardware into the computer, temporarily remove it to make sure it is not the cause of your issue. Before attempting to remove any hardware, make sure the computer has no conflicts in Device Manager. If you have not recently installed any new hardware, the next best solution is to remove certain components one by one. For example, you may remove your modem, network card, sound card, or any other expansion cards because they are not needed for the computer to operate. Run the computer without these cards to see if they are the cause of your issue. You should also try unplugging any peripheral (plugged in) devices one at a time to see if they’re causing your issues. Serious issue with Windows If you have tried all the above recommendations and the computer continues to lock up frequently, it’s possible that Windows may have been corrupted. Try running through the basic troubleshooting steps for your version of Windows on our basic troubleshooting page. If these additional steps do not resolve your issue, we suggest you backup all of your valuable information, and then erase and reinstall Windows. Hardware failure If your computer turns off abnormally during or after the installation of your operating system, hardware components inside your computer may be malfunctioning. If so, the failing hardware is likely the RAM, CPU, Motherboard, or Power Supply (in that order). If you access the same parts from another computer known to be working, try swapping the parts to isolate the faulty hardware. Otherwise, you need to have the computer serviced.
Most pieces of commercial software come with some form of protection to deter unauthorized copying and installation. Although software makers use different methods to achieve this goal, one common approach involves asking the user to type in a product key or serial number, which is the case for both Microsoft Windows and Office. This string of letters and/or numbers is a unique identifier that the software decodes to verify that your copy is legal. It’s required to authorize the software’s installation and your eligibility for product support, so it’s important to know where it is and how to access it. Here are some easy ways to find your product key for both Windows and Office. Find your product key Try to remember how you purchased your Microsoft software, which determines where you need to look to find the product key. If you bought a retail copy of Microsoft Windows or Office, the first place to look is in the disc jewel case. Retail Microsoft product keys are usually on a bright sticker located inside the case with the CD/DVD, or on the back. The key consists of 25 alphanumeric characters, usually split into groups of five. If your computer came preloaded with Microsoft Windows, the software product key is usually on a multicolored, Microsoft-branded sticker on your PC case. For Microsoft Office, you can find the s ticker on the installation disc that accompanied the computer. If all else fails, you will need to contact Microsoft to obtain a replacement key. Typically you can find your Microsoft Windows product key on a sticker attached to your PC. Windows 10 With Windows 10 Microsoft introduced a new method for authenticating the operating system called a digital entitlement, but it doesn’t apply to all Windows 10 PCs. Basically, you have a digital entitlement if you upgraded your PC from Windows 7 or 8.1 for free. You will also have a digital entitlement if you paid for a Windows 10 upgrade via the Windows Store, or did a fresh install of Windows 10 and then paid for it via the Windows Store. If, however, you obtained Windows 10 by buying a new PC, buying a Windows 10 installation DVD, or buying a digital copy of Windows 10 from a retailer that’s not the Windows Store then you have a traditional product key, not a digital entitlement. What a digital entitlement means f your PC has a digital entitlement, Microsoft keeps a record of your right to run Windows 10 on its servers. The good thing about this system is there’s no product key to lose. If you ever need to do a fresh install from a USB drive, for example, you will not have to activate your PC. Instead, after the reinstall Windows will activate seamlessly in the background within a few hours (or at worst a few days). The one thing to keep in mind is that your digital entitlement is based around your system configuration. If you change too many components at once and then try to reinstall Windows 10 you may run into problems. This is a rare issue, but it’s something to keep in mind if you are planning on swapping out your hard drive or SSD and hope to do some other upgrades at the same time. It would be better, for example, to do the HDD to SSD swap first, reinstall Windows 10, and once it’s activated take care of the other component upgrades. Otherwise, you might be putting in a call to Microsoft’s robo-activation line. That said, major upgrades like swapping out your motherboard are almost certainly guaranteed to require a call to Microsoft for activation. Extract your key from Microsoft Windows or Office If you can’t find your key but the software is installed, you can use a program such as the Magical Jelly Bean Key Finder. This utility can quickly locate your Windows key (along with the keys for many other installed programs) and display it for you. Download Magical Jelly Bean and follow the installation process to install it on your computer. Launch the program. You can find it by opening the Start menu, typing keyfinder, and pressing Enter. The program will scan your installations and find the product keys of supported programs, including various versions of Windows and Microsoft Office. When the scan is complete, the tool will display a window with entries in the left pane for whatever installed versions of Windows and Office it detected. Click the entry for your version of Microsoft Windows to reveal the key and other information about the installation. The key will be listed under ‘CD Key’ on the right side of the window. Record this information in case you need to reference it in the future. Make sure to record the information exactly, as the key will not work otherwise. Do not confuse this with the ‘Product ID’ entry, which is unneeded. Click the entry for your version of Microsoft Office to reveal the key and other information about that installation. The same advice goes for Office: Your key will be listed under ‘CD Key’ on the right side of the window. Record this information exactly, as the key will not work otherwise. Use Magical Jelly Bean Keyfinder to extract the CD keys for software you currently have installed. Source: itnews.com