Docker announced they will integrate a version of Google’s Kubernetes container-orchestration tool as a native part of Docker. The Kubernetes integration will be available as a beta release. The integration will be available to all Docker’s versionsll the operating systems they currently support. One reason of including Kubernetes is to spare developers the effort of standing up a Kubernetes instance, whether for simple dev/test or for actual production use. Historically it’s been a chore to get Kubernetes running, and so a slew of Kubernetes tools and third-party Kubernetes projects have emerged to simplify the process. Most of the time, it’s easier to use a Kubernetes distribution, becayse the distribution’s packaging deals with these problems at a high level. Docker’s inclusion of Kubernetes makes Docker itself a Kubernetes distribution.To integrate the two, Docker is using a Kubernetes feature called custom resources, a native way to customize particular installations of Kubernetes. Previous repackagings of Kubernetes sometimes made changes that subtly broke compatibility, and custom resources was devised as a way to avoid that. Any changes Docker makes to Kubernetes can be kept separate from the Kubernetes code base, and done entirely on the Docker side. Another reason is integrating Kubernetes to provide an easy alternative to its own orchestration tool, Swarm.
If you use a free and open source operating system, it’s almost certainly based on the Linux kernel and GNU software. But these were not the first freely redistributable platforms, nor were they the most professional or widely commercialized. The Berkeley Software Distribution, or BSD, beat GNU/Linux on all of these counts. So why has BSD been consigned to the margins of the open source ecosystem, while GNU/Linux distributions rose to fantastic prominence? Read on for some historical perspective. Understanding BSD requires delving far back into the history of Unix, the operating system first released by AT&T Bell Labs in 1969. BSD began life as a variant of Unix that programmers at the University of California at Berkeley, initially led by Bill Joy, began developing in the late 1970s. At first, BSD was not a clone of Unix, or even a substantially different version of it. It just included some extra utilities, which were intertwined with code owned by AT&T. That all started to change in the early 1980s, however, when AT&T’s decision to commercialize Unix raised demand for a Unix clone that would be freely redistributable without steep licensing fees. As a result, BSD programmers worked throughout the mid-1980s to separate their code from AT&T’s, and made slow but steady progress toward releasing a complete Unix-like operating system of their own. They finally achieved their goal in June 1991, when the Net 2 release of BSD became available. In contrast to the Net 1 release that preceded it, which comprised mostly networking code but not a full operating system, Net 2 was a complete, Unix-like system. Because Net 2 BSD was available under a permissive license that granted access to the source code and the right to redistribute the system or derivatives of it freely, it was effectively the first “open source” operating system to see the light of day. The term “open source” did not yet exist at the time, and the BSD license did not satisfy the Free Software Foundation’s requirements for free-software licensing, but Net 2 was still a major step forward for the free-software community, since it showed that efforts to create a free, Unix-like system could succeed. Net 2 was also an important leap because it was the only free Unix clone that actually worked. At the time, the Linux kernel did not yet exist. (Linus Torvalds released the first version of Linux several months after Net 2 appeared, and it took more than two more years before Linux became fully functional.) And the GNU operating system, which Richard Stallman and his supporters had been working on since 1984, lacked a kernel. So, if BSD Net 2 was the first—and, at the time, by far the best—free Unix-like system, why did it not end up taking the hacker community by storm, and become the open source platform we all use today instead of GNU/Linux? Fighting the Law Part of the answer was the lawsuit that Unix Systems Labs (USL), which by the early 1990s had acquired rights to what had been AT&T Unix, sued Berkeley Software Design Inc. (BSDI) in early 1992, claiming that BSDI’s commercial implementation of BSD infringed USL’s copyright. In March 1993, a court dismissed most of these claims, but the legal drama continued when the University of California countersued. It was not until early 1994, by which time Novell had acquired the rights to Unix, that the legal disputes were fully resolved through settlement. Ultimately, the legal drama did not undercut programmers’ ability to use or redistribute BSD. However, it did stunt adoption of the operating system by creating doubts about BSD’s legal future. As a result, it arguably forged an opening that allowed Linux to gain ground despite being developed primarily by an undergraduate in his Helsinki apartment, rather than a team of professional computer scientists at a major American university. Licenses, Licenses But the lawsuits do not fully explain BSD’s slow adoption. After all, the GNU/Linux community faced its own series of major legal battles in the early 2000s, when the SCO Group sued several major Linux distributors and corporate users. Yet the GNU/Linux community emerged relatively unscathed from those disputes, which were essentially resolved in 2007 in Linux’s favor. Part of BSD’s lack of immense popularity with hackers—that is, the people who made GNU and Linux what they became—also had to do with the permissiveness of the Net 2 licensing terms. Unlike GNU’s GPL license, which required the source code of all derivative works of GPL-licensed software to remain publicly available, the BSD license did not force developers who borrowed or tweaked the BSD code for their own projects to share their source code publicly. That was good news for commercial companies wary of sharing their code, but bad for hackers who valued openness and transparency. The BSD Cathedral Last but not least, it also mattered that BSD was built by a relatively small, mostly centralized team of professional programmers based in Berkeley. That set it apart from a system like Linux, which Torvalds created in collaboration with a wide network of loosely organized volunteer developers spread across the world. Thus, while BSD functioned as what Eric S. Raymond would call a software “cathedral,” carefully and elegantly built by a small group of master coders, the Linux development scene looked more like a “bazaar,” with code released early and often by a decentralized team of programmers whose only qualification was their ability to get the job done. The cathedral approach—which GNU, for its part, also adopted for the first 15 years of its history—did not lead to the rapid innovation that helped make Linux so popular in its early years. Thus, the fact that Torvalds, mostly by mistake, stumbled upon a very new, more effective development strategy lent momentum to Linux that BSD never saw. BSD’s Legacy Of course, BSD hardly disappeared entirely once Linux had become popular by the mid-1990s. On the contrary, a variety of operating systems based on Net 2, including NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD, remain alive and well today, with small but passionate communities of users. At the same time, BSD’s permissive licensing terms made its derivatives popular with some proprietary-software companies—most notably Apple, which included some code derived from BSD in its OS X and iOS operating systems. In this sense, BSD—or some form of it—has a massive following today, although the vast majority of people who own Macs, iPhones and iPods have no idea that their hardware relies partially on “open source” code developed at Berkeley in the 1980s and early 1990s. Maybe that’s sad. After all, Apple software is about as closed as closed can be, making it the total opposite of the type of system the BSD developers envisioned when they unveiled Net 2 in 1991. Either way, it’s an interesting outcome. Source: thevarguy.com
The new family of Ubuntu 16.10 distributions was released on the 13th of October 2016, just last week. Let’s have a whistle-stop tour on some features of Ubuntu MATE 16.10. Once booted into Ubuntu MATE, the welcome screen meets you. The freshly booted system takes just under 800 Mb of memory, which is quite a lot! Ubuntu MATE 16.10 comes with the full suite of LibreOffice 220.127.116.11, including Draw and Math applications. Translation and document viewer application are also included in the default distribution. Firefox, Transmission, HexChat and Thunderbird are the Internet tools in Ubuntu MATE 16.10. There is no Internet Messenger application. Graphical tools in Ubuntu MATE 16.10 are represented by Image Viewer, Simple Scan, Colour Selection utility and Shotwell photo manager. Of course, LibreOffice Draw is here too, as I mentioned above. Screenshot utility is also included, but not listed in the Graphics section of the menu. GIMP is not included. Ubuntu MATE 16.10 comes with VLC player, Rhythmbox media manager, Brasero disk burning utility and a webcam application. There are no other applications in the Sound&Video category like video editor or screencast recorder. Configuration of Ubuntu MATE 16.10 is generally placed in the Control Center that gives you access to various parts of the system settings. If you need to install or remove software, then Ubuntu MATE 16.10 provides you with a software centre which has a fancy name “boutique”. Welcome to the shopping mall! Have you tried Ubuntu MATE 16.10 yourself yet? If not, it is not too late to get it from here. Source: darkduck.com
If you’re in the market for a new Linux laptop you might be looking at ‘Microsoft Signature Edition‘ laptops from big known brands, such as the Lenovo Yoga 900 ISK2 UltraBook. Well, stop. It seems that Microsoft Signature Edition PCs do not let you install Linux. Buyers of affected ‘Signature Edition’ Lenovo devices say they are unable to install Linux, as the “SSD is locked in a proprietary RAID mode that Linux doesn’t understand”. One buyer raised the issue on the Lenovo product forums only to be told by an ‘Lenovo Product Expert’ that the devices are “locked as per our agreement with Microsoft”. Lenovo laptops that are known to be affected include the aforementioned Yoga 900 ISK2, the Yoga 900S, and the Yoga 710S, What Is a Signature Edition PC? Microsoft Signature Edition PCs typically cost the same as a non-Signature counterpart, but come with a bunch of assurances. One is that the device will be free of bloatware, trial software and paid promotional web shortcuts. Signature Edition devices also ship with Microsoft Defender pre-installed. Microsoft also say they perform ‘hardware component verification’ to make sure that a device lives up to its stated claims, and that they measure power usage, screen brightness and key travel “to ensure it meets the highest standards”. Conspiracy? Not everyone is convinced that a dark conspiracy is at play here. Some have suggested that the issue which prevents Linux from being installed, while real, could be due to a lack of Linux support/drivers for the specific RAID configuration/SSD/BIOS in the Lenovo line of laptops. Others posit that this could be a simple a bug in Lenovo’s BIOS that doesn’t ‘set’ changes made. It’s also unlikely that a “Lenovo product expert” would be privy to any specifics in a business contract between Microsoft and Lenovo, much less commercially sensitive bits about blocking free operating systems. For now all that is clear is that, if you own a Lenovo Signature Edition laptop, you can’t install Linux on it. The exact reason why, and a way to workaround it, remains a little unclear. What do you think: conspiracy or a case of cra*py RAID SSD support? Update: Lenovo Statement Lenovo has provided the press with the following statement, confirming it seems to be a RAID driver issue and not a caveat of any contract with Microsoft: “To improve system performance, Lenovo is leading an industry trend of adopting RAID on the SSDs in certain product configurations. Lenovo does not intentionally block customers using other operating systems on its devices and is fully committed to providing Linux certifications and installation guidance on a wide range of products –https://support.lenovo.com/us/en/documents/pd031426. Unsupported models will rely on Linux operating system vendors releasing new kernel and drivers to support features such as RAID on SSD.” There we have it. No conspiracy. But the situation is still not ideal. Lenovo could (maybe should?) document or offer a way for affected owners to switch the SSD from RAID to a more commonly compatible mode. Matthew Garrett points out that Intel, rather than Microsoft, is tacitly to blame for the nature of the RAID set-up, which Linux has no support for, as it helps to “ensure good power management”. Source: omgubuntu.co.uk
Inkscape is the best alternative for CorelDraw and Adobe Illustrator – this is a great flexible drawing tool for all designers. This will supported most of the CorelDraw important features such as pencil tool, shape tool, embed bitmap, Transformations, color management, clones and many more options. You can also open the CDR file by using Inkscape application but the only drawback is this will not support multipage format. Advantages This is a great tool for any small company or freelance designer who can’t afford (or doesn’t want to pay) the licenses of the Adobe Creative software. Inkscape is free and open source, it’s available in all major operating systems and you can download it and start working in minutes. It’s intuitive and easy to master for anyone who has experience in vector drawing software. CorelDraw users will find it extremely familiar, but it will be easy too for those who come from Freehand or Illustrator. His set of tools and features cover most of the needs in everyday design work. It is rare to find something that Inkscape can not do, either natively or with an addon. I really like the Trace Bitmap tool, very useful to create icons or line art which I use in my desktop publishing and design projects. Inkscape is developed by the open source community and in recent years has become very active. That means that users can report their problems or the functionalities they would like to see implemented in future releases. There is a lot of documentation online to answer questions about common tasks or to help in the migration if we come from Illustrator. When you work as a freelance designer one of the problems is the price of the software. With Inkscape you can create professional projects from day one without any investment. There are other tools like Photoshop that are standard among designers and it’s difficult (if not impossible) to find them a substitute. However Inkscape is a real and fully functional alternative to Illustrator. Disadvantages The user interface needs polishing, sometimes it feels a little bit old. A redesign to unclutter the space would be good. Some properties windows, like the one to export to PNG, are so big that whe you use them the working space left seems very small (in an standard screen). Anyway, you can detach them and arrange them as you wish. Right now there is no easy way to create multipage documents, but I believe they are going to implement this feature in next releases. I you want to create a PDF with more than one page, you have to do it by yourself. Recommendations Inkscape works great as a stand alone software for many vector graphic projects. Yet, even if you already have a preferred vector editor Inkscape is a great compliment to any design software suite. I encourage every digital designer to download it and experiment with its unique features. You may download for free your Inkscape version from here.
Greylisting Greylisting has proven to be a pretty effective method for reducing the amount of spam you receive. It works by temporarily rejecting emails. Valid email servers will then retry delivery, and be allowed through while spammers will (hopefully) give up. See http://www.greylisting.org/ for more info. The postgrey application at http://postgrey.schweikert.ch/ provides a simple way to implement greylisting for postfix mail servers. Greylisting would have saved Peter in Samoa Recently Peter here at RimuHosting went to Samoa for a week (nice for some). He found himself on a 9600 baud internet connection. And there was no way it was keeping up with the 200-odd spam emails that arrived in his inbox each day. After implementing greylisting the spam has dropped down to less than a dozen or so a day. Installing postgrey Debian and Ubuntu have the package available in the main repositories. On CentOS/RHEL based distros, you will need to enable the rpmforge repository per http://rimuhosting.com/knowledgebase/linux/distros/centos/extra-packages-for-rhel4-and-centos5 Then just install postgrey with apt /etc/init.d/postgrey start Configure postgrey to start at boot: Debian/Ubuntu: /etc/init.d/postgrey start CentOS/RHEL: /etc/init.d/postgrey start And tell it to start up (any distro): /etc/init.d/postgrey start Now, tell postfix to use it: Debian/Ubuntu: The package listens on localhost:10023 by default, so edit /etc/postfix/main.cf, and add ‘check_policy_service inet:127.0.0.1:10023’ to smtpd_recipient_restrictions. Make sure to add it after permit_sasl_authenticated so you don’t greylist authenticated users. Like this: smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks permit_sasl_authenticated reject_unauth_destination check_policy_service inet:127.0.0.1:10023 CentOS/RHEL: This package listens on a unix socket by default, so edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and add ‘check_policy_service unix:/var/spool/postfix/postgrey/socket’ to ‘smtpd_recipient_restrictions. Again, make sure to add it after permit_sasl_authenticated so as not to greylist yourself. Example: smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks permit_sasl_authenticated reject_unauth_destination check_policy_service unix:/var/spool/postfix/postgrey/socket Per-user greylisting You can set it so that only particular users have their emails grey-listed. e.g. in /etc/postfix/main.cf have: smtpd_restriction_classes = greylist greylist = check_policy_service inet:127.0.0.1:10023 And add the following to smtpd_recipient_restrictions in /etc/postfix/main.cf: smtpd_recipient_restrictions = [other options that normally go here] check_recipient_access hash:/etc/postfix/greylist_optin (Note that you would have this set in smtpd_recipient_restrictions instead of the “check_policy_service unix:/var/spool/postfix/postgrey/socket” setting mentioned in the previous section. In /etc/postfix/greylist_optin put users who should be greylisted followed by ‘greylist’ (the class defined above): email@example.com greylist firstname.lastname@example.org greylist Sending mail to those users should now get greylisted (might need to ‘postmap /etc/postfix/greylist_optin’ before restarting postfix). In /etc/postgrey/whitelist_clients you can add domains (domain names, one per line) that you think should not be greylisted. e.g. domains of users that you deal with frequently (maybe avoiding common sources of spam though like yahoo.com, hotmail.com, etc).
Inkscape is an open-source vector graphics editor similar to Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Freehand, or Xara X. What sets Inkscape apart is its use of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), an open XML-based W3C standard, as the native format. For Designers of all Kinds The design process may begin by doodles on a napkin, a sketched mindmap, a photo of a memorable object, or a mockup in software which really wouldn’t work to complete the project. Inkscape can take you from this stage to a final, professional-grade design format which is ready for publication on the web or in physical form. If you are new to the process of creating vector graphics it may feel different, but you will quickly be pleased by the flexibility, and power Inkscape offers. Vector design is often the preferred method of image creation for logos, illustrations and art which require high scalability. The Inkscape application is used across a wide variety of industries (marketing/branding, engineering/CAD, web graphics, cartooning) and individual uses.